FromTheDeskOf Dr. Hildy: NANO BUILDING BLOCKS: Polymers, Wires and Composites

FROM THE DESK OF DR. Hildy®
© May 12, 2015

NANO BUILDING BLOCKS:  Polymers, Wires and Composites 
“A Collection of Updates in the Big World of Nanotechnology”

In the BIG World of Nanotechnology many individual compounds are used that are known to be hazardous materials and/or toxic substances are now being applied to the innovative and creative architectural design of bio-scaffolding, nano coatings, thin films and 3-D Bio-Printing and regular 3-D printing processes to name a few aspects of their use.

In the May 2015 issue of the Smithsonian, the magazine clearly sates the “Future is Here” as it specifically addresses topics of communicating brain to brain; farm to table organic suburbs; made to order bones and organs and fighting famine and drought with satellites.   In each of these processes a form of a nano advanced materials is used as a composite composed of a base polymer (of a known plastic raw materials).  It may be used to make a human ear and/or develop a brain cloud network of MEMS or nano-siliconCMOS neural dust sensors, so you may transfer your thoughts to another cloud brained archived brain or into your own after selecting the memory or function you desire.

In any event the use of polymers, wires and their composite materials are the nano building blocks to make a nano tool, which becomes the micro device.   The single building blocks as a nanotechnology term or nano advanced material that is composed of toxic individual compounds that are even maded from polymeric plastics such as Styrofoam®, phthalates, vinyl chloride, butadiene rubber and many more that are known human carcinogens are now being used in the following aspects of beauty, cosmetics, medicine and pharmaceutical industries as nano delivery systems are illustrated in their particular use and/or smart function aspect.

A primary concern to human and wildlife is the use of these same materials for a SCADA system(s) as integrated through visWi-Fi, Satellite, Wi-Fi, Radio Frequency and many other forms of energy field transmissions, which have been designed for remote human monitoring, internal biological monitoring and environmental monitoring areas are  all real. Billions of dollars are spent each year in military and medical research to refined their capabilities in these areas as documented in the National Nanotechnology Initiative Supplement to the President’s 2015 Budget, National Science and Technology Council, Subcommittee on Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology, March 2014, Washington, DC.  This is only the beginning of waking up to the Big Nano World and how it will impact your life for either the good or the bad.  So Rip van Winkle it is time to wake up and smell the roses before a nanobot gets you with the venom of a polymer resin. Smart Dust
Millimeter-scale self-contained microelectromechanical devices that include sensors, computational ability,  bi-directional wireless communications technology and a power supply.  As tiny as dust particles, smart dust motes can be spread throughout buildings or into the atmosphere to collect and monitor data. Smart dust devices have applications in everything from military to meteorological and to the medical fields.  (See www.onecellonelightradio.wordpress.com   Dr. Hildegarde Staninger, RIET-1 War Council Summit, paper on Smart Dust (may be under nanotechnology), © January 1, 2010.

Liquid Crystals (nano)
Liquid crystals (LCs) are matter in a state that has properties between those of conventional liquid and those of solid crystal.  For instance, a liquid crystal may flow like a liquid, but its molecules may be oriented in a crystal-like way. There are many different types of liquid-crystal phases, which can be distinguished by their different optical properties (such as birefringence). When viewed under a microscope using a polarized light source, different liquid crystal phases will appear to have distinct textures. The contrasting areas in the textures correspond to domains where the liquid-crystal molecules are oriented in different directions. Within a domain, however, the molecules are well ordered. LC materials may not always be in a liquid-crystal phase (just as water may turn into ice or steam).

Liquid crystals can be divided into thermotropic, lyotropic and metallotropic phases. Thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals consist of organic molecules. Thermotropic LCs exhibit a phase transition into the liquid-crystal phase as temperature is changed. Lyotropic LCs exhibit phase transitions as a function of both temperature and concentration of the liquid-crystal molecules in a solvent (typically water). Metallotropic LCs are composed of both organic and inorganic molecules; their liquid-crystal transition depends not only on temperature and concentration, but also on the inorganic-organic composition ratio.

Examples of liquid crystals can be found both in the natural world and in technological applications. Most contemporary electronic displays use liquid crystals. Lyotropic liquid-crystalline phases are abundant in living systems. For example, many proteins and cell membranes are liquid crystals. Other well-known examples of liquid crystals are solutions of soap and various related detergents, as well as the tobacco mosaic virus.

In some cases under the liquid crystal complex of advanced nano materials you will find hydrogels with N, N-dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate/acrylic acid-co-acrylamide hydrogen.

The polyelectrolyte complex of hydrogel with (N,N-dimethylaminoethylmethyacrylate/acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) hydrogen  and polyelectrolyte carboxymethyl Konjac glucomannan-chitostan beads (again as nano particles) are used as sensors as a novel pH-sensitive mechanism for nanoparticle responsive to tumor studies.  These materials are also used in coatings for stem cell bio-scaffolding to allow cross linked behavior and thickening gelling agent to allow the cellular matrix to adhere to it.   (Ex. Nano-fillers for wrinkle reduction, bone grafts, and cellulose thin film production.   (Note:  if in excess one will loose phosphate and sulfates in the body that are important for detoxification.)  The cellulose thin film technology is an important factor in controlling the disintegration of the bio-scaffold and/or platform.

Microcrystalline Cellulose
Microcrystalline cellulose is a term for refined wood pulp and is used as a texturizer, an anti-caking agent, a fat substitute, an emulsifier, an extender, and a bulking agent in food production.  The most common form is used in vitamin supplements or tablets. It is also used in plaque assays for counting viruses, as an alternative to carboxymethylcellulose.

In many ways, cellulose makes the ideal excipient. A naturally occurring polymer, it is composed of glucose units connected by a 1-4 beta glycosidic bond. These linear cellulose chains are bundled together as microfibril spiraled together in the walls of plant cell. Each microfibril exhibits a high degree of three-dimensional internal bonding resulting in a crystalline structure that is insoluble in water and resistant to reagents. There are, however, relatively weak segments of the microfibril with weaker internal bonding. These are called amorphous regions; some argue that they are more accurately called dislocations, because of the single-phase structure of microfibrils. The crystalline region is isolated to produce microcrystalline cellulose.  Approved within the European Union as a thickener, stabilizer or emulsifiers microcrystalline cellulose was granted the E number E460(ii) with basic cellulose given the number E460 (i).

Nano Claws, Hooks and Anchors
Nano claws, hooks and anchors are a stage of development with the use of silica as an advanced nano material.  This process has been explained very well in the paper, Nano Silica Tubes by Dr. Zhong Wang, et. al., Nano Letters, © 2006.  The nano claw or hook in many cases with it, there is a presence of liquid viral crystals.  This material will form into a specific shape such as a (nano) claw or hook upon optimum climatic conditions and biological factors that it was designed to be a smart material for its true functional tool applications.

You, Peng, et. al.’s article DNA “nano-claw”: logic-based autonomous cancer targeting and therapy. At the Molecular Science and Biomedicine Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Bio-Sensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, College of Biology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Chemistry and Molecular Medicine, Hunan University , Changsha 410082, China.

Developed cell types, both healthy and diseased, can be classified by inventories of their cell-surface markers. Programmable analysis of multiple markers would enable clinicians to develop a comprehensive disease profile, leading to more accurate diagnosis and intervention. As a first step to accomplish this, we have designed a DNA-based device, called “Nano-Claw”. Combining the special structure-switching properties of DNA aptamers with toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions, this claw is capable of performing autonomous logic-based analysis of multiple cancer cell-surface markers and, in response, producing a diagnostic signal and/or targeted photodynamic therapy. We anticipate that this design can be widely applied in facilitating basic biomedical research, accurate disease diagnosis, and effective therapy.    If you were exposed to “experimental” therapies you may have had exposure to nano claws.

Nano Anchors in DNA Nanoball Sequencing (for pharmaceuticals and cosmetics)
DNA Nanoball Sequencing involves isolating DNA that is to be sequenced, shearing it into small 400 – 500 base pair (bp) fragments, ligating adapter sequences to the fragments, and circularizing the fragments. The circular fragments are copied by rolling circle replication resulting in many single-stranded copies of each fragment. The DNA copies concatenate head to tail in a long strand, and are compacted into a DNA nanoball. The nanoballs are then adsorbed onto a sequencing flow-cell. Unchained sequencing reactions interrogate specific nucleotide locations in the nanoball by ligating fluorescent probes to the DNA. The color of the fluorescence at each interrogated position is recorded through a high-resolution camera.  Bioinformatics are used to analyze the fluorescence data and make a base call, and for mapping the 35-bp mate pair reads to a reference genome.  The genome is assembled and any polymorphisms present in the sequence are identified.   Further development in this aspect of nano gene delivery systems may utilize a DNA aptamers with toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions (Nano Claw or Nano Anchor) as particles of DNA are tethered to other molecules in this system of nano advanced materials.   The nano claw is capable of performing autonomous logic-based analysis of multiple cancer cell surface markers and , in response, producing a diagnostic signal and/or targeted photodynamic therapy.   

These types of systems may also be applied to micro array systems of gene delivery payloads through nanotechnology tools.  Nanoball terminology is smaller than a DNA/RNA plasmid and is incorporated into a nano spheroid that may contain as many as 92 holes in the spheroid to deliver a specific payload of antibody, DNA/RNA, antigen, chemicals and bio-agents.

Nano Fluids
A Nanofluid is  a fluid containing nanometer-sized particles, called nanoparticles.  These fluids are engineered colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles in a base fluid.  The nanoparticles use din nanofluids are typically made of metals, oxides, or carbides nanotubes.   Common based fluids include water, ethylene glycol and oil.

Nanofluids are  supplied by two methods called the one-step and two-step methods.   Several liquids including water, ethylene glycol, oils have been used as base fluids.  Nano-metals used so far in nanofluid synthesis include metallic particles, oxide particles, carbon nanotubes, grapheme nano-flakes and ceramic particles.  Nanofluids are primarily used as coolant in heat transfer equipment such as heat exchangers, electronic cooling systems (such as flat plate) and radiators.

Nanofluids of selective visible colors are developed in gold nanoparticles embedded in polymer molecules of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) in water.  A fluorescent polyvinylprrolidone (PVP) film with assembled nanostructures has been successfully prepared in one pot by using perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracrabolylic acid dianhydride (PDA0 as a fluorophore as reported by Sun Mengmend, et. al. in

A fluorescent perylene-assembeld polyvinylpyrrolidone film:  synthesis, morphology and nanostructure.

(Soft Matter, 2014, 10, 3426-3431)   These materials are self assembled nano structures.  Some examples of nanoparticles are organomontmorillonite, which may have other compounds encapsulated within its structure such as formaldehyde, polydimethylsiloxane and/or  viomellein (a mycotoxin).

Nanowire
A nanowire is a nanostructure, with the diameter of the order of a nanometer (10−9 meters). It can also be defined as the ratio of the length to width being greater than 1000. Alternatively, nanowires can be defined as structures that have a thickness or diameter constrained to tens of nanometers or less and an unconstrained length. At these scales, quantum mechanical effects are important — which coined the term “quantum wires”. Many different types of nanowires exist, including metallic (e.g., Ni, Pt, Au), semiconducting (e.g., Si, InP, GaN, etc.), and insulating (e.g., SiO2, TiO2). Molecular nanowires are composed of repeating molecular units either organic (e.g. DNA) or inorganic (e.g. Mo6S9-xIx).

A common technique for creating a nanowire is Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) synthesis. This process can produce crystalline nanowires of some semiconductor materials. It uses as source material either laser ablated particles or a feed gas such as silane.

VLS synthesis requires a catalyst. For nanowires, the best catalysts are liquid metal (such as gold) nanoclusters, which can either be self-assembled from a thin film by dewetting, or purchased in colloidal form and deposited on a substrate.

The source enters these nanoclusters and begins to saturate them. On reaching supersaturation, the source solidifies and grows outward from the nanocluster. Simply turning off the source can adjust the final length of the nanowire. Switching sources while still in the growth phase can create compound nanowires with super-lattices of alternating materials.

A single-step vapour phase reaction at elevated temperature synthesises inorganic nanowires such as Mo6S9-xIx. From another point of view, such nanowires are cluster polymers.

There are two basic approaches to synthesizing nanowires: top-down and bottom-up. A top-down approach reduces a large piece of material to small pieces, by various means such as lithography or electrophoresis. A bottom-up approach synthesizes the nanowire by combining constituent adatoms. Most synthesis techniques use a bottom-up approach.

Nanowire production uses several common laboratory techniques, including suspension, electrochemical deposition, vapor deposition, and VLS growth. Ion track technology enables growing homogeneous and segmented nanowires down to 8 nm diameter.

On the MIT Technology Review in 2009 by Katherine Bourzac (March/April 2009) interviewed Dr. Zhong Wang, a material scientist form Georgia Tech, stated that the use of nano wires for piezoelectric effect from crystalline materials under mechanical stress produces an electrical potential – that would allow electrical energy to harness tiny vibrations all around us- sound waves to allow for medical implantable devices to work.

Nano Rods
In nanotechnology, nanorods are one morphology of nanoscale objects. Each of their dimensions range from 1–100 nm. They may be synthesized from metals or semiconducting materials. Standard aspect ratios (length divided by width) are 3-5. Nanorods are produced by direct chemical synthesis. A combination of ligands act as shape control agents and bond to different facets of the nanorod with different strengths. This allows different faces of the nanorod to grow at different rates, producing an elongated object.

One potential application of nanorods is in display technologies, because the reflectivity of the rods can be changed by changing their orientation with an applied electric field. Another application is for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Nanorods, along with other noble metal nanoparticles, also function as theragnostic agents. Nanorods absorb in the near IR, and generate heat when excited with IR light. This property has led to the use of nanorods as cancer therapeutics. Nanorods can be conjugated with tumor targeting motifs and ingested. When a patient is exposed to IR light (which passes through body tissue), nanorods selectively taken up by tumor cells are locally heated, destroying only the cancerous tissue while leaving healthy cells intact.

Nanorods based on semiconducting materials have also been investigated for application as energy harvesting and light emitting devices. In 2006, Ramanathan et al. demonstrated electric-field mediated tunable photoluminescence from ZnO nanorods, with potential for application as novel sources of near-ultraviolet radiation.

Zinc Nano Rods
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod, also known as nanowire, has a direct bandgap energy of 3.37 eV, which is similar to that of GaN, and it has an excitation binding energy of 60 meV. More interestingly, the optical bandgap of ZnO nanorod can be tuned by changing the morphology, composition, size etc. Recent years, ZnO nanorods have been intensely used to fabricate nano-scale electronic devices, including field effect transistor, ultraviolet photodetector, Schottky diode, and ultra-bright light-emitting diode (LED). Various methods have been developed to fabricate the single crystalline, wurtzite ZnO nanorods. Among those methods, growing from vapor phase is the most developed approach. In a typical growth process, ZnO vapor is condensed onto a solid substrate. ZnO vapor can be generated by three methods: thermal evaporation, chemical reduction, and Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) method. In the thermal evaporation method, commercial ZnO powder is mixed with SnO2 and evaporated by heating the mixture at elevated temperature. In the chemical reduction method, zinc vapor, generated by the reduction of ZnO, is transferred to the growth zone, followed by reoxidation to ZnO. The VLS process, originally proposed in 1964, is the most commonly used process to synthesize single crystalline ZnO nanorods. In a typical process, catalytic droplets are deposited on the substrate and the gas mixtures, including Zn vapor and a mixture of CO/CO2, react at the catalyst-substrate interface, followed by nucleation and growth. Typical metal catalysts involve gold, copper, nickel, and tin. ZnO nanowires are grown epitaxially on the substrate and assemble into monolayer arrays. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has also been recently developed. No catalyst is involved in this process and the growth temperature is at 400 ~500 °C, i.e. considerably milder conditions compared to the traditional vapor growth method

Gold Nanorods
The seed-mediated growth method is the most common and achieved method for synthesizing high-quality gold nanorods. A typical growth protocol involves the addition of citrate-capped gold nanospheres, served as seeds, to the bulk HAuCl4 growth solution. The growth solution is obtained by the reduction of HAuCl4 with ascorbic acid in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant and silver ions. Longer nanorods (up to an aspect ratio of 25) can be obtained in the absence of silver nitrate by use of a three-step addition procedure.

In this protocol, seeds are sequentially added to growth solution in order to control the rate of heterogeneous deposition and thereby the rate of crystal growth. The shortcoming of this method is the formation of gold nanospheres, which requires non-trivial separations and cleanings. In one modifications of this method sodium citrate is replaced with a stronger CTAB stabilizer in the nucleation and growth procedures. Another improvement is to introduce silver ions to the growth solution, which results in the nanorods of aspect ratios less than five in greater than 90% yield.  Silver, of a lower reduction potential than gold, can be reduced on the surface of the rods to form a monolayer by under potential deposition. Here, silver deposition competes with that of gold, thereby retarding the growth rate of specific crystal facets, allowing for one-directional growth and rod formation.

Cation Exchange Nanorods
Cation exchange is a conventional but promising technique for new nanorod synthesis. Cation exchange transformations in nanorods are kinetically favorable and often shape-conserving. Compared to bulk crystal systems, the cation exchange of nanorods is million-times faster due to high surface area. Existing nanorods serve as templates to make a variety of nanorods that are not accessible in traditional wet-chemical synthesis. Furthermore, complexity can be added by partial transformation, making nanorod heterostructures.

Acetylcholine Chloride (not found but may be present due to delivery system)
CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) are functionalized with mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and subsequently covered with poly-L-lysine (PLL) as the template for the formation of the silica outer shell. This nanocomposite is used as a transduction and stabilization system for optical biosensor development. The covalent immobilization of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase from Drosophila melanogaster (AChE) during the formation of the biomimetically synthesized silica is used here as a model, relatively unstable enzyme, as a proof of principle. The enzyme is successfully immobilized onto the QDs and then stabilized by the PLL capping and the subsequent formation of the outer nanoporous silica thin shell, giving rise to the QD/AChE/PLL/silica biosensor. It is shown that the poly-L-lysine templated silica outer shell does not modify the optical properties of the quantum dots, while it protects the enzyme from unfolding and denaturation. The small pores of the silica shell allow for the free diffusion of the analyte to the active center of the enzyme, while it does not allow for the proteases to reach the enzyme. The response of the QD/AChE/PLL/silica nano-biosensor to its substrate, acetylcholine chloride, is evaluated by monitoring the changes in the QDs’ photoluminescence which are related to the changes in pH. These pH changes of the surrounding environment of the QDs are induced by the enzymatic reaction, and are associated with the analyte concentration in the solution. The biodetection system proposed is shown to be stable with a storage lifetime of more than 2 months. The data presented provides the grounds for the application of this nano structured biosensor for the detection of AChE inhibitors.  (See article by Dr. Hildegarde Staninger on Nano Composites Aerial Disperson, NREP 2009).

Polyelectrolyte carboxymethyl konjac glucomannan-chitosan (usually found with polyacrylamide hydrogel
Carboxymethyl konjac glucomannan–chitosan (CKGM-CS) nanoparticles were spontaneously prepared under very mild conditions via polyelectrolyte complexation. Bovine serum albumin (BSA), as a model protein drug, was incorporated into the CKGM-CS nanoparticles. The physicochemical properties of the BSA-loaded nanoparticles were identified by Zetasizer 3000 and FTIR spectrophotometry. Their sizes were from 330 nm to 900 nm; zeta potentials were positive according to varies CKGM/CS ratios. The encapsulation efficiency was up 20%. The release behavior in vitro of BSA from the nanoparticles was also investigated. We could find that the BSA release from the CKGM-CS nanoparticles is much more influenced by the CS coating layer than by the CKGM inner structure. And the CKGM-CS matrices not only exhibited pH-responsive properties, but ionic strength-sensitive properties. These systems may present a potential for pulsatile protein drug delivery. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 72B: 299–304, 2005

As Spheroids (microbeads)
Novel polyelectrolyte beads based on carboxymethyl  Konjac glucomannan (CKGM) and chitosan (CS) were prepared via electrostatic interaction. The main advantage of this system is that all procedures used were performed in aqueous medium. The pH-sensitivity of beads was characterized by fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The swelling characteristics of these hydrogel beads at distinct compositions as a function of pH values were investigated. It was found that the swelling rate of test beads was larger (7.4) in the alkaline medium than in the acid medium (5.2) and at pH 5.3 was the smallest (3.5). Furthermore, for the evaluation of the pH effect on drug release from the beads, we studied bovine blood proteins (BSA) release profiles at pH 1.2, 5.0 and 7.4. The pH-sensitivity of the novel polyelectrolyte complex would make an interesting protein delivery system.  Individuals may experience small white or beige colored microspheroids/beads coming out of the skin as the skin releases the material.

Siloxane (made from hydrogels and polyacrylamide hydrogels)
A siloxane is a functional group in organosilicon chemistry with the Si–O–Si linkage. The parent siloxanes include the oligomeric and polymeric hydrides with the formulae H(OSiH2)nOH and (OSiH2)n.  Siloxanes also include branched compounds, the defining feature being that each pair of silicon centers is separated by one oxygen atom. The siloxane functional group forms the backbone of silicones, the premier example of which is polydimethylsiloxane.

The main route to siloxane functional group is by condensation of two silanols:

2 R3Si–OH → R3Si–O–SiR3 + H2O

Usually the silanols are generated in situ by hydrolysis of silyl chlorides. With a disilanol, R2Si(OH)2 (derived from double hydrolysis of a silyldichloride), the condensation can afford linear products terminated with silanol groups:

n R2Si(OH)2 → H(R2SiO)nOH + n−1 H2O

Alternatively the disilanol can afford cyclic products

n R2Si(OH)2 → (R2SiO)n + n H2O

Starting from trisilanols, cages are possible, such as the species with the formula (RSi)nO3n/2 with cubic (n = 8) and hexagonal prismatic (n = 12). (RSi)8O12 structures. The cubic cages is an expanded analogues of the hydrocarbon cubane, with silicon centers at the corners of a cube oxygen centres spanning each of the twelve edges.

Oxidation of organosilicon compounds, including siloxanes, gives silicon dioxide. This conversion is illustrated by the combustion of hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane:

((CH3)2SiO)3 + 12 O2 → 3 SiO2 + 6 CO2 + 9 H2O

Strong base degrades siloxane group, often affording siloxide salts:

((CH3)3Si)2O + 2 NaOH → 2 (CH3)3SiONa + H2O

This reaction proceeds by production of silanols. Similar reactions are used industrially to convert cyclic siloxanes to linear polymers.

The word siloxane is derived from the words silicon, oxygen, and alkane. In some cases, siloxane materials are composed of several different types of siloxide groups; these are labeled according the number of Si-O bonds. M-units: (CH3)3SiO0.5, D-units: (CH3)2SiO, T-units: (CH3)SiO1.5

Cyclic siloxanes Linear siloxanes
D3: hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane MM: hexamethyldisiloxane
D4: octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane MDM: octamethyltrisiloxane
D5: decamethylcyclopentasiloxane MD2M: decamethyltetrasiloxane
D6: dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane MDnM: polydimethylsiloxane

Acrylamide/Polyacrylamide Hydrogel
Acrylamide (or acrylic amid is a chemical compound with the chemical formula C3H5NO. Its IUPAC name is prop-2-enamide. It is a white odorless crystalline solid, soluble in water, ethanol, ether, and chloroform. Acrylamide decomposes in the presence of acids, bases, oxidizing agents, iron, and iron salts. It decomposes non-thermally to form ammonia, and thermal decomposition produces carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen.

Acrylamide is prepared on an industrial scale by the hydrolysis of acrylonitrile by nitrile hydratase.

Most acrylamide is used to synthesize polyacrylamides, which find many uses as water-soluble thickeners. These include use in wastewater treatment, gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, papermaking or e processing, tertiary oil recovery, and the manufacture of permanent press fabrics. Some acrylamide is used in the manufacture of dyes and the manufacture of other monomers.

The discovery of acrylamide in some cooked starchy foods in 2002 prompted concerns about the carcinogenicity of those foods. As of 2014 acrylamide is still in debate for its carcinogenicity links in humans.

Polyacrylamide was first used in a laboratory setting in the early 1950s. In 1959, the groups of Davis and Ornstein and of Raymond and Weintraub independently published on the use of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to separate charged molecules. The technique is widely accepted today, and remains a common protocol in molecular biology labs.

Acrylamide has many other uses in molecular biology laboratories, including the use of linear polyacrylamide (LPA) as a carrier, which aids in the precipitation of small amounts of DNA. Many laboratory supply companies sell LPA for this use.

The following information on polyacrylamide hydrogel is take from Christensen, LH. et.al. Long-term effects of polyacrylamide hydrogel on human breast tissue.  Plast Reconstruction Surg.  2003 May; 111 (6):  1883-90.

Polyacrylamide hydrogel is an atoxic, stable, nonresorbable sterile watery gel consisting of approximately 2.5% cross-linked polyacrylamide and nonpyrogenic water. Polyacrylamide hydrogel is widely used in ophthalmic operations, drug treatment, food packaging products, and water purification. In the former Soviet Union, polyacrylamide hydrogel has been used in plastic and aesthetic surgery for more than 10 years, and Kiev City Hospital treats approximately 300 women a year for breast augmentation using the polyacrylamide hydrogel Interfall  (Contura SA, Montreux, Switzerland). Capsule shrinkage following these injections has never been observed. The authors examined breast tissue samples from a total of 27 women who had polyacrylamide hydrogel injected at Kiev City Hospital up to 8 years and 10 months earlier. Age at operation, duration of polyacrylamide hydrogel implantation, history of possible side effects to the gel injection, other intercurrent diseases, the reason for present open breast operation, and breast palpation findings before operation were in each case compared with the histological findings on samples taken from breast tissue bordering the gel. The gel presented itself as a dark violet, homogenous mass with a rounded or ragged outline in large or medium-size deposits and as elongated strands, which mimicked the extracellular matrix, in small deposits. Histological findings of the breast tissue bordering the gel showed three different patterns: large collections of gel gave rise to a thick, soft-looking cellular membrane of macrophages and foreign-body giant cells; medium-size deposits were surrounded by just a thin layer of macrophages; and small deposits were not associated with any reaction in the surrounding tissue. Projections of the cellular soft membrane, known as granulomas, were seen in six patients.

The granulomas were composed of macrophages, foreign-body giant cells, lymphocytes, and blood cells. A thin layer of fibrous connective tissue was occasionally present around the foreign-body membrane, but the thick fibrous capsule, which has been described in connection with silicone implants, was completely absent. The gel changes could be correlated to neither time since gel injection nor a history of recent injury or inflammation. It is concluded that the polyacrylamide hydrogel interfall, which has been used in the former Soviet Union, is stable over time, nondegradable, confined to the breast, and diffusion and migration resistant. When the hydrogel is injected in medium-size or large quantities a cellular foreign-body reaction occurs, but in small amounts it is capable of splitting up individual connective tissue fibers and fat cells, substituting for the extracellular connective tissue matrix without eliciting any foreign-body reaction. As far as these data are concerned, polyacrylamide hydrogel is well tolerated by the breast and does not give rise to severe fibrosis, pain, or capsule shrinkage. However, to determine safety with more certainty, a larger sample size would be necessary.

Newer nano delivery systems with lattice or matrix platforms using nanospheroids and/or neurospheroids address specific characteristic parameters to distinguish polybutylcyanoacrylate chemicals exposure vs. a designed spheroid, may be addressed through Bio-Energy Field Analysis and other similar technologies.  These technologies will distinguish from acrylic compounds/paints vs. its use in nanospheroids made from liquid nano crystals composed of the following parameters:

  • Dextran 70 KDa
  • 230 nm diameter
  • Zeta Potential -10.7 mV

In conclusion, the use of stepping analysis will be  based on the use of “Add On’s” to determine results illustrative of specific diameter size that was referenced in the original report by Chrangiz Karmari, et.al., in producing a spherical nanoparticle of poly (butyl cyanaoacrylate) as a “Nano Carrier” by emulsion polymerization method.  This method was developed for drug delivery systems using a spherical structure of polymeric nanoparticles with a diameter in 230 nm.   The diameter found at a level 4 was for 230 nm, thus exposure to polybutylcyanoactylate original level 5 was from a nano delivery system.   This system is being considered for chemo therapy applications and other drug type delivery systems.   And as a chemotherapeutic agent, one now has to consider the cellular detoxification mechanisms of removing harmful compounds such as polybutylcyanoactylate a known chemical carcinogen in industry vs. a medicine.

And now is the time when asbestos and other known industrial chemicals to cause cancer are the “nano carrier or coating material” for a medicine as we move from read the label to knowing its total composition.

Additional Reference(s):

  • Styrofoam® is a Registered Trademark of Dow Chemical Corporation, Midland, Michigan.
  • Topic Material. wikipedia.com
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Posted on May 18, 2015, in Nano Building Blocks, NANOTECHNOLOGY, Uncategorized and tagged , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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