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FROM THE DESK OF DR. HILDY® – Acetaminophen and Paracetamol – Glutathione Reaction

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TODAY’S SUBJECT:
*GLUTATHIONE and It’s Role In The Biotransformation of TOXICANTS*
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Life and Health Enhancing information!
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FROM THE DESK OF DR. HILDY®
by Dr. Hildegarde Staninger®, RIET-1
© July 1, 2013

ACETAMINOPHEN & PARACETAMOL and THEIR REACTION TO GLUTATHIONE

Recently, I co-authored a paper that is being published by the National Registry of Environmental ProfessionalsTM, Glenview, IL for their Professional Journal.   The paper is entitled:  “Glutathione and Its Role in the Biotransformation of Toxicants.”  The paper is a must read paper for anyone who has been exposed to industrial solvents, venoms, hazardous materials, medications and other toxic chemical substances.    The paper did not address a primary study that was conducted by J.R. Mitchell (1973) which specifically addressed the protective role of glutathione upon induced hepatic necrosis from exposure to the compound acetaminophen (paracetamol, the international nonproprietary name) an active ingredient in the medication Tylenol®.1, 2, 3a,b

The paper discusses the role of Xenobiotics and their metabolites.   A xenobiotic is a chemical which is found in an organism but which is not normally produced or expected to be present in it. It can also cover substances which are present in much higher concentrations than are usual. Specifically, drugs such as antibiotics are xenobiotics in humans because the human body does not produce them itself, nor are they part of a normal diet.

Natural compounds can also become xenobiotics if they are taken up by another organism, such as the uptake of natural human hormones by fish found downstream of sewage treatment plant outfalls, or the chemical defenses produced by some organisms as protection against predators.

However, the term xenobiotics is very often used in the context of pollutants such as dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls and their effect on the biota, because xenobiotics are understood as substances foreign to an entire biological system, i.e. artificial substances, which did not exist in nature before their synthesis by humans. The term xenobiotic is derived from the Greek words ξένος (xenos) = foreigner, stranger and βίος (bios, vios) = life, plus the Greek suffix for adjectives -τικός, -ή, -ό (tic).4 a, b

Free reactive electrophilic intermediates of xenobiotics can produce damage to important cellular consitituents.  Reduced gluathione and the glutathione S-transferase protect cells from this damage by capturing reactive electrophiles before they react at nuceleophilic sites critical to cell viability.5

The metabolism of acetaminophen, an analgesic that at high doses can produced hepatic necrosis, serves as an example of this protective system.  A large body of work has shown that one of the principal ways in which acetaminophen produces its hepatotoxicity is via the reactive intermediate, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imines shown in Figure 1.  This intermediate is apparently a soft electrophile that reacts readily with the strong, soft nucleophile glutathione.  As long as the amount of glutathione present at the site of activation of acetaminophen is sufficient to bind the reactive intermediate, no toxicity ensues.  However, as was demonstrated in a classic study by Mitchell et al.6, when glutathone is depleted by pretreatment with diethylmaleate, the benzoquinone imine covalently binds to tissue proteins resulting in tissue necrosis.  Mitchell et. al.6 were among the first to propose that glutathione plays a fundamental role in protecting tissue against electrophilic attack by xenobiotics.7

Since these early studies demonstrating the protective role of glutathione, many compounds have been shown to form conjugates with glutathione.  The protective interaction of glutathione and its primary sulfur dependent enzyme, glutathione-S-transferase play a major role in hormonal regulation of substrate supply to the small intestine.  Insulin, glycogen, and catecholamines are the most important hormones that regulate the supply of glucose, fatty acids, and ketone bodies in most tissue.  Early studies by W.C. Hulsmann concluded that the direct effect of these hormones on small intestinal epithelium may be modest or negligible, while interaction of streptozotocin-diabetic rat, showed the vascularly profused small intestine diminished glucose utilization.  This, however, is probably due to the glucose sparing action of fatty acids and ketone bodies upon intestinal energy metabolism, because of the observation that in diabetes the rate of lactate formation is not decreased.8 a,b, 9

It is very important to note that glutathione plays a major role in detoxification, walling up the toxicants and adding a chain of beneficial mechanisms need to protect one from the chronic effects of hormones, such as thyroid hormones and glucocorticoids that are further stimulated or inhibited upon exposure to thiols/mercaptans.10

REFERENCES

1)  Staninger, Hildegarde and Daniel F. Farrier.  Glutathione and Its Role in the Biotransformation of Toxicants.  Journal of the National Registry of Environmental Professionals.  Glenview, IL  © June 28, 2013.

2)  Sacarello, Hildegarde and Scott J. Evans.  Genetic Cancer Risk Assessment of Electrophilic Hydrocarbon Mixtures in Subsurface Water Supplies. US EPA Agency:  Research and Development.  Symposium on short-Term Genetic Bioassays in the Evaluation of Complex Environmental Mixtures.  Hotel Europa.  Chapel Hill, North Carolina.  March 27-29, 1984

3) (a) Hayes, A. Wallace.  Principles and Methods of Toxicology, Second Edition. Chapter 2:  Metabolism: A Determinant of Toxicity by J. Donald deBethizy and Johnnie R. Hayes.  Raven Press, Ltd., New York, New York © 1989 pgs 29-69.

(b) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tylenol

4)  (a) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xenobiotic.com

(b) Mentuccia, Roberto and Hildegarde Staninger.  Increase or Boost Your Metabolism.   Integrative Health Systems®, LLC.  Los Angeles, CA  © June 7, 2011

5)  Mitchell, J.R. Acetaminophen-induced hepatic necrosis.  IV. Protective role of glutathione.  J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 187: 211-217, © 1973

6)  Mohandas, J., Duggin, G.G., Horvath, J.S. and D.J. Tiller.  Metabolic oxidation of acetaminophen (paracetamol) mediated by cytochorme P-450 mixed-function oxidase and prostaglandin endoperoxide synthetase in rabbit kidney.  Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.  61:252-259.

7)  Morgan, E.T., and M.J. Coon.  Effects of cytochrome b5 on cytochrome P-450 catalyzed reactions:  Studies withmanganese substituted cytochrome b5. Drug Metab. Dispos., 12: 358-364.

8) (a) Hulsmann, W.C.  Abnormal stress reactions after feeding diets rich in (very) long chain fatty acids:  high levels of corticosterone and testosterone.  Mol. Cell. Endocrinol., 12: 1-8 (C) 1978

(b)  Hulsmann, W.C.  Energy metabolism in different preparations of rat small intestinal epithelium.  In:  Intestinal Permeation.  Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop Conference Hoescht, edited by M. Kramer and F. Lauterbach, pp. 229-239.  Excerpta Medica Intern. Congress Series 391, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.

9.  Lamers, J.M.J. and W.C. Hulsmann. The effects of fructose on the stores of energy-rich phosphate in rat jejunum in vivo.   Biochim.  Biophys. Acta.  313: 1-8. © 1973

10.  Schille, Carol M.  Intestinal Toxicology.  Target Organ Toxicology Series.  Editor-in-Chief Robert L. Dixon.  Raven Press, Ltd.  New York, New York © 1984

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IHS PRESENTS NEW MORGELLONS DOCUMENTARY – “Folie à Deux and Other Tales Of Morgellons and Nano”

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‘Folie à deux and other tales of Morgellons and Nano’ is a no-budget documentary film derived from a series of interviews conducted between 2008-2010, on the subject of Morgellons Disease. This film will be making history by offering images and information that has never been available to the general public, until now. First time producer/director Veronica Hendricks offers the world the opportunity to open a new, desperately needed dialog on a subject that is as complex as it is controversial. ‘Folie à deux and other tales of Morgellons and Nano’, focuses on the human aspect of this important issue and gives sufferers of Morgellons disease an explanation to a problem most doctors believe exists only in the mind. Written by Anonymous

The Film features the scientific research of :

Dr. Hildegarde Staninger®, RIET-1

 For Signed Director’s Copy CALL:   

323-466-2599  ~  $ 19.99  ~

Every purchase of the film will allow you to receive
50% off a 30-minute $100 Consultation = only $50
with Dr. Hildegarde Staninger®, RIET-1
~Talk about the movie and YOU ~

~ Integrative Health Systems®, LLC ~
415 ¾ N. Larchmont Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA 90004
323-466-2599

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Folie à Deux and other tales of Morgellons and Nano – Website http://www.folieadeuxandothertalesofmorgellonsandnano.com

Folie à Deux and other tales of Morgellons and Nano – Trailer http://www.folieadeuxandothertalesofmorgellonsandnano.com/#!video-foliea-deux-trailers/cguv

~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~

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Veronica’s Story:

I’ve been researching Morgellons since spring of 2008, when I witnessed the most frightening thing I’ve ever seen, a nano wire moving in and out of my friend’s chest.

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9/21/12 – FROM THE DESK of DR. HILDY – WATERMELON !!

From the Desk of Dr. Hildy    ~~WATERMELON !!~~

H. Staninger© Sept. 4, 2012

IHS BioEthno Medicinal Botanicals Of Antiquity
 **Old World Medicinal Plants**

Available from:
Integrative Health Systems, LLC – 323-466-2599
http://www.1cellonelight.com/pdf/Plantain-Bitter-Melon-and-Acai[1].pdf

Did you know that the watermelon is really a berry?  And what a sweet and delicious fruit it is to all of us who have eaten it during these long hot “microwavable” summers that stretch around the world.  Whether it is a little sugar baby or just a long green one it is always refreshing on hot summer day.   The fruit, rind and even the seeds have been known for their therapeutic medicinal use in ancient times in Persia, Egypt, Spain, Rome and Greece.

Watermelon has been reported as a very helpful in correcting abnormal kidney conditions, such as polycystic kidney, exposure to mycotoxins (Balkan Disease) and aids in the reduction of adenovirus within the kidney tissue.  Apparently there is an ingredient in the seeds, Cucurbocitrin, which has the effect of dilating the capillaries, the tiny blood vessels of the body.  Consequently, the pressure upon the large blood vessels within the kidney are then reduced.

 

Watermelon wedges are popular as desserts and they are also used in fruit salads, smoothies, popsicles, or mixed in a salad with pieces of cantaloupes, pears, apples and other fruits and berries.  It is quite a treat on a very HOT day, especially when served Ice cold.

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FROM THE DESK OF DR. HILDY™ – Series 4: Healing Botanicals From Antiquity – Baci Mi™ Oxygenated Coconut Oil

FROM THE DESK OF DR. HILDY™          © July 17, 2012

               Series 4: Healing Botanicals From Antiquity

                                BACI MI™ OXYGENATED COCONUT OIL
                                         A Natural Elixir from the Tropics

 by Dr. Hildegarde Staninger™, RIET-1 

The Tree Of Life

The Tree Of Life

The coconut, which is loaded with fiber, vitamins and minerals, is rich with nutrition and is classified as a functional food.  Its luxurious and fragrant oil is highly prized for its healing properties which go far beyond any other dietary oil.  Pacific Islanders consider it to be the cure for all illness. 

Coconut

Coconut

The coconut palm is so highly revered as a source of food and medicine by Pacific Islanders that it is called “The Tree of Life.”  This curative oil is full of health benefits.  It’s a natural anti-aging elixir to beauty, skin and hair and boosts the immune system.  It’s also a healing salve for inflammation, wounds or pain anywhere on the body.  It eradicates scars, keloids, psoriasis, acne, cracked and flaking skin.  After bathing, it automatically restores skin’s proper pH.  It controls dandruff and head lice and soothes diaper rash.

Skin

Skin

Along with reducing inflammation, coconut oil supports tissue healing and repair.  When  applied topically, it helps form a chemical barrier on the skin to ward off infection.  Use it as a moisturizer, night cream, or serum on your face and watch the scars, wrinkles and tiny lines magically disappear as it restores the skin’s texture, elasticity and clarity.

Baci Mi Oxygenated Coconut OIl

Baci Mi Oxygenated Coconut OIl

The inclusion of oxygen and ozone in this wondrous synergistic blend rejuvenates the body and leads to the repair of every cell.  This is important, because as we age our oxygen supply is depleted and often leaves us vulnerable to attack from pathogens.  Coconut oil becomes liquid at 76 degrees.  Still, it continues to be effective either in solid or liquid form.  Refrigerate it if you want to keep it solid in warm weather.

There are at least 25 other things that Coconut Oil has been known to help your body as it is detoxified, rejuvenates and nurtures itself in Read the rest of this entry

4/2/12-FROM THE DESK OF DR. HILDY-Series 2- BioEthnoticity and Nanotechnology – Cinnabar and Nanocheops

From the Desk of Dr. Hildy™

© March 6, 2012

Series 2: BioEthnoticity & Nanotechnology 

CINNABAR and NANOCHEOPS

Emperor Qin Shibuangdi, First Emperor of the Ming-dynasty

Emperor Qin Shibuangdi, First Emperor of the Ming-dynasty

Cinnabar was “truly one” with Qin Shibuangdi, First Emperor of the Ming-dynasty (ruled 221-210 BCE) and the earliest known imperial patron of alchemy, next to Rudolf the Great of Hapsburg in 1218 AD for Europe.  Despite the time periods Confucian disapproval of both the First Emperor and his fondness of alchemy, the ingestion of gold – or, rather, the transformed gold- appears to have remained quite popular throughout the Han dynasty.   However, most Han dynasty alchemists worked with cinnabar, sometimes with fatal results.  Cinnabar (mercury sulfide) is an ore of mercury that is a deep vermilion in color.  When heated, cinnabar produces liquid mercury, and further heating and combination of mercury and sulfur will in turn reproduce cinnabar (a cyclical transformation that particularly intrigued Chinese alchemists).  Mercury was further amalgamated with other metals (gold and lead in particular) producing elixirs to be ingested. While cinnabar itself was non-toxic- indeed it still maintains a prominent place in traditional Chinese medicine –

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3/7/2012 – FROM THE DESK OF DR. HILDY

~ Dr. Einstein Speaks ~

~ Dr. Einstein Speaks ~

 
Mount Hildegardicus

From the Desk of Dr. Hildy®

                                                                             Series 1

March 6, 2012                                VITAMINS and MINERALS

I want to thank all of the readers of this blog/column for joining us here, for you will gain tidbits of information to help yourselves in your everyday life and reduce your exposure to toxic substances from our environment and other areas where exposures occur.   Over the last 4 decades of gaining knowledge about vitamins and minerals, I have learned the important roles they serve in our physiology and cellular metabolic applications.  Since the introduction of hazardous materials, toxic substances, exposures to mold, advanced nano materials and many other parameters that synergistically effect life’s cellular activities, all life has been affected to a maximum degree by their toxicological effects.  These effects are many times subtle, due to the human body always trying to make up for something going on within its basic cell structure, tissues and organ systems.

I will be writing this blog/column to bring to my readers information I feel is important to know, learn and to utilize in your everyday life, because everyone must take care of themselves, then they can take care of others – especially their family members.

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