Posted by Dr. Hildy®
by Dr. Hildegarde Staninger®, RIET-1
© July 1, 2013
ACETAMINOPHEN & PARACETAMOL and THEIR REACTION TO GLUTATHIONE
Recently, I co-authored a paper that is being published by the National Registry of Environmental ProfessionalsTM, Glenview, IL for their Professional Journal. The paper is entitled: “Glutathione and Its Role in the Biotransformation of Toxicants.” The paper is a must read paper for anyone who has been exposed to industrial solvents, venoms, hazardous materials, medications and other toxic chemical substances. The paper did not address a primary study that was conducted by J.R. Mitchell (1973) which specifically addressed the protective role of glutathione upon induced hepatic necrosis from exposure to the compound acetaminophen (paracetamol, the international nonproprietary name) an active ingredient in the medication Tylenol®.1, 2, 3a,b
The paper discusses the role of Xenobiotics and their metabolites. A xenobiotic is a chemical which is found in an organism but which is not normally produced or expected to be present in it. It can also cover substances which are present in much higher concentrations than are usual. Specifically, drugs such as antibiotics are xenobiotics in humans because the human body does not produce them itself, nor are they part of a normal diet.
Natural compounds can also become xenobiotics if they are taken up by another organism, such as the uptake of natural human hormones by fish found downstream of sewage treatment plant outfalls, or the chemical defenses produced by some organisms as protection against predators.
However, the term xenobiotics is very often used in the context of pollutants such as dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls and their effect on the biota, because xenobiotics are understood as substances foreign to an entire biological system, i.e. artificial substances, which did not exist in nature before their synthesis by humans. The term xenobiotic is derived from the Greek words ξένος (xenos) = foreigner, stranger and βίος (bios, vios) = life, plus the Greek suffix for adjectives -τικός, -ή, -ό (tic).4 a, b
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